November 26, 2015

Events of 1955

topics 1
Citroen DS debut
The same in 1955 as the crown sale, Citroen DS has debuted at the Paris Salon. It is not even compared with just of Japanese cars has taken a first step but, DS had a startling innovation even from the level of the West at that time. Technology, both in terms of design, it is more was called "20 years advanced vehicle". About 1.45 million units by 1975 is manufactured, it was demonstrated that it was "in '20 advanced car". Although there is a chauffeur-driven car image, such as is used in official vehicles of the President, we had to combine combat power enough to win the Monte Carlo Rally.

topics 2
James Dean accidental death
Movie "East of Eden," "Rebel Without a Cause" in James Dean September 30, 1955, which was suddenly popular, became the people that does not come back in an accident. A representation of youth Ukkutsu the (Ukkutsu) Popping into the seats in the youth star, but one week after you have finished taking the movie "Giant", it became a people that does not come back in an accident. Dean was a favorite car, had to skip the 41 Line from Los Angeles to compete in the race that takes place in Salinas. Is the Porsche 550 Spyder of just bought. He also had to skip at full throttle after it had been caught in the middle of speeding, oncoming vehicle and was head-on collision at the destination near the Y-shaped intersection, was killed instantly. Still was a young 24-year-old.

topics 3
It begins '55 system at <social conditions> maintenance joint
While Musan political party in the occupation regime after the war GHQ has been legalized, Conservative Party is mushrooming. Japan Progressive Party, and is raising an army Japan Cooperative Party, it was repeatedly Rigo collection and distribution. Labor disputes have occurred frequently, the strike broke out even large-scale conflict in the Toyota took place in 1950. Socialist Party and the Communist Party is had kept a large force against the background of the trade union. Socialist forces are maintaining a constant force, opposing conservatives were split. And Shigeru Yoshida of the Liberal Party, it is Ichiro of the Democratic Party of Japan Yukio Hatoyama. General election in the "voice of the sky dissolution" of January 24, 1955 is carried out, Japan Democratic Party was not able to win the majority. Socialist Party, which has been split into left and right to play a reunification in October, is a major force. And there is also that you have a sense of crisis, the Liberal Party and the Democratic Party of Japan is the Liberal Democratic Party was born on November 15 to play a joint. Long-term administration is the beginning of the Liberal Democratic Party, Socialist Party that does not have the possibility of regime acquisition went a scheme which constitutes the counterweight as the second party established.

Crown that matches the taste of the consumer society (Munakata)

Toyoda Eiji nephew of Kiichiro, visited the factory of Ford and GM over to the United States. To learn advanced technology but was the purpose, it felt to see actually is, there is nothing that I do not know of their own, it was that. If we have to refine the technology has accumulated so far, it is to have confidence that they can be independently manufactured automobiles. As a result, the independent development route of Toyota became consolidate.

Because at the time of the passenger car almost was for the taxi, the development was also advanced along on their use. At the same time, the motorist was also placed in the field of view, it is telling the foresight of Toyota. Had been with for a taxi at the same time was released master in January 1955, Crown had been positioned as a family car.
Mr. Eiji Toyoda (Toyota Motor former president)
Master Although the suspension with an emphasis on durability has been adopted leaf rigid both the front and rear wheels, the crown has a front wheel independent suspension
It was a double wishbone. Design is also large in the luxuriously and disguised crown, such as in the burly master and chrome plating

Contrary to the proposal, the taxi industry was accepted was a crown. Coincidentally Jinmu economy has begun, the next in 1956 of economic white paper was labeled "no longer after the war." Black-and-white TV, washing machine, refrigerator touted is called the "three sacred treasures", meaning consumption of national
Greed has been growing. There and a luxurious equipment and nimble style, crown with a nominal maximum speed 100km / h and a comfortable ride
And it but appeared. And not the master to leave the lingering austerities, is the crown met the taste of the times.

Even as private cars, Crown was collected high popularity. 1.5-liter four-cylinder OHV engine delivers 48 horsepower, if the power
Powerful brake is provided Te Align. Primary Crown characterized the double doors door, he became with the presence of yearning of the masses. In 1960 appeared 1.9-liter engine, AT version named "Toyoguraido" has also been added.

"Thus crown, the five years of primary would build the foundation of the current domestic cars. Toyota, no automotive technology in Japan
At once improved is the "Tokudaiji Aritsune Mr. that it has made this crown is so stated in" My Japan Automobile History ". Own net domestic passenger car that Toyota has created to stick to development is the automobile industry of Japan became the foundation to continue to develop.

Own route, which has been pursued since before the war

1933, automobile part was launched in the Toyota Industries Corporation. The same year, Nissan automobile manufacturing Co., Ltd., the predecessor has been established. At the time, had been mass-produced car in Japan, it was only the plant to carry out the knock-down production of GM and Ford. Was taking action in order to launch the automotive industry in its, Toyoda of Toyota Kiichiro and is was a Gisuke Ayukawa of Nissan.

Nissan for the purchase manufacturing equipment was summoned also engineers from the United States, Toyota has pursued its own line from the very beginning. We studied the Chevrolet engine, was exploring the casting method. With respect to the body, it was carried out kneading the design by the Chrysler Airflow was the cutting edge in the model. And, we will announce the first production car Toyoda AA type in 1936. It was a passenger car of the 5-seater loaded with 65 horsepower in-line six-cylinder engine to the ladder-type frame. While evolving, 1404 units by 1943 has been manufactured.

Toyota has attempted to expand production of passenger cars, but the era was heading to war. At the request from the government, and thus to undertake the production of military trucks. And aspirations had been different, in that car of mass production was supposed to go piled up valuable experience. It is alive after the end of the war, and a profit by doing the huge orders during the Korean War special demand, I was able to solidify the foundation of the company.

Meanwhile, was studied also continues towards the production of passenger cars. In 1947, it launched the Toyopet SA type. It is an ambitious product that employs a backbone frame and a four-wheel independent suspension. However, 27 horsepower of the side valve engine is a powerless, the strength of the body had been missing in the poor road conditions at the time.

November 19, 2015

Jun Japanese car starting! Toyopet Crown (1955)

Toyota chose the path of self-development

1955 of 10 years after the end of the war, it has a great meaning for the Japanese automobile history. He Toyopet Crown was released from Toyota. To automobile production had begun before the war, after the war also various manufacturers had embarked on the production of motor vehicles. But the appearance of the crown was a breakthrough, since this car was something called a pioneering figure of "purely domestic passenger car" (Koshi).

September 1945. GHQ issued a directive so as to convert the munitions factory in private-sector demand. Thus, Toyota and Nissan which manufactures military vehicles during the war has led to the production of automobiles for the private sector. However, the GHQ-specified it is only the production of the track, the production of passenger cars were not permitted. Such as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Nakajima Aircraft is dismantled, but each of the factory had been working on civilian products such as pots and kettles, to start production of the scooter in soon.

1947 production following the compact car 300 units of 1500cc in years is allowed, and the automotive industry in Japan toward the reconstruction finally. Tachikawa airplane automobile development department will release the "Tama" of electric vehicles in anticipation of the gasoline shortage. simple three-wheeler that Toyo Kogyo and Daihatsu were produced was also popular. Nissan has announced the sedan called Datsun DA type and DB type. However, the technology level compared to Western low, was the production volume slightly also.

So that the Ministry of International Trade and Industry at the time was promoted, it is a technical collaboration with automobile manufacturers in Europe and the United States. Nissan Austin, Isuzu roots, Hino partnership with Renault, we were knocked down production. He studied art in to undertake the production, it is was going to increase the localization rate of parts. However, Toyota does not take the route, we chose the road to develop the domestic passenger car on their own.

November 18, 2015

Towards a new era (~ 1997)

Although experienced a turbulent long recession and the automotive industry, even now Japanese cars have a strong presence. Innovation in environmental technology is a specialty is, and he appealed to the world.
The 1997 Toyota announced the Prius is the first mass-produced hybrid car, it showed innovation in environmental technology.

In the current (2013), "eco-car" has been the center of the market, plug-in hybrid car Toyota Prius PHV, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, electric vehicles such as the Nissan Leaf, already cheerfully the road of Japan running.
"The ultimate eco-car" and being said that fuel cell vehicles are also traveling at a trial basis around.

In the environment and safety of the plane, it's certainly still there is room for progress in the automobile. Automatic brake to avoid the collision began to be equipped with already a lot of car, even automatic operation is also trying to become the reach of technology.

Such as cooperation with personal mobility and IT technology, it attempts explore the appearance of the next-generation car have also been continued without interruption all over the world.

Soon to become 130 years from gasoline vehicles birth.
Still, do not know where the growth and development of the momentum remains, the car shows the magnitude of the role in modern society. The support the mobility of people, he now also car.

November 17, 2015

Upheaval in the 21st century (~ 1992)

It was a Japanese car, which celebrated its heyday, but unexpected barrier was stand in the way. It is the collapse of the bubble economy. New car sales of 1991 is lower than the previous year for the first time in seven years, I will be the entire Japanese economy will experience a long recession. Sales of those new models that have been planned during the bubble period appeared was not extended.
In addition, from this time, the diversified ones that ask the user of the car, whereas most of the domestic sales was the car of sedan type, a small utility vehicle and typified by a light car, Ya Honda Odyssey so far highly practical minivan such as Toyota Previa has became to occupy the center of the sale.

The automotive industry has been hit by the upheaval, it is not only in Japan.
Importance of scale is increased by the development of the global economy, restructuring of also lacking Manufacturer of the world has been made.

The word "four million units club" becomes a trend, annual production volume has been not survive unless 400 million units. 1998 Daimler-Benz and Chrysler merged in the year, the next 1999 Nissan became a subsidiary Renault. Ford acquired Volvo and Jaguar, was launched the PAG by the addition of Aston Martin and Land Rover. Dizzying mergers and acquisitions is repeated, further industry consolidation went progressed.

November 16, 2015

Japanese car of the golden era (1980s-1991)

Then also Japanese cars, and increased sales in the US market, in 1980, automobile production in Japan has reached to cause trade friction between the world's number 1, and the United States.

March forward of Japanese cars continued, in 1989 it was boiled in a bubble economy (first year of Heisei) was a memorable year. Toyota Celsior, Nissan Skyline GT-R, debuted all at once is a great car such as the Eunos Roadster, and he was to consolidate the reputation of Japanese cars.
Also this year, the US market, as Japan's premium brand, Toyota "Lexus", Nissan was also the year founded the "Infinity" brand. (Honda established in the antecedent to "Acura" brand in 1986)

That in the previous year, causing the Nissan Cima becomes the apex of "Hiso car boom" "Cima phenomenon", it had been selling like hotcakes expensive and exclusive car.
In 1990, Honda NSX appeared a Japanese car's first super sport. The 3-liter V6 engine to the monocoque body of the all-aluminum in models with and combines the practicality that AT also choose to include a high-performance, large trunk.
The height of the goodness and perfection of quality, was enough to shake the world of sports car manufacturer.

November 13, 2015

The breath of sports car in Japan

In 1963, the first Annual Meeting of the Japanese Grand Prix was held, to stage the Japan Grand Prix, it came to high performance is compete. Skyline create a myth, confrontation of the Toyota Sports 800 and Honda S600 has attracted attention.

In the late 1960s, the finest cars Toyota 2000GT, Japan's first rotary engine car Mazda Cosmo Sport, Nissan is currently also taken over model Fairlady Z, it was born also a full-fledged domestic sports car like.

Dramatically improved in the Western performance of the automobile

70s from the 1960s, the performance of the car went growing in leaps and bounds. Porsche 911 that appeared in 1963, was greeted enthusiastically in sports car fans of the world.

The Ford Mustang that appeared in 1964 in the largest in the United States, sporty pony car went popular in compact. In Italy, the maximum speed competition by road car broke out. Wrapped high-power engine to the beautiful body of Carrozzeria model competed speed.

November 11, 2015

Wave of reconstruction and motorization (1955-1970 years)

Japan had made its own development, it was a genre of light car. 1949 standards stipulated in, it incentives to limit the emissions of body size and engine as a product the reach of the masses has been taken. When the 1954 emissions standard is revised (1954) is defined in the 360cc, large manufacturers comes to gang engaged in a light car.

From the mid-1950s, Japan enters a period of rapid economic growth. Announced in 1955 in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is "national car initiative", he received it, Subaru 360 was released in 1958 to become a huge hit, then each manufacturer to develop competition that it was waged is, it went rapidly to develop a motorization.

In the 1960s, Japan Tokyo Olympics in 1964, there is also special demand, such as Osaka Expo of 1970, further achieved economic development, 1968 it is the second largest GNP world to. Road conditions also, Meishin highway opened in 1963 as Japan's first highway, in 1968 Tomei Expressway was opened.

People even for automobiles, began to seek a large car even more luxurious. Toyota launched the Publica of small popular car in 1961. Then, just first generation Corolla has become Japan's national car was launched in 1966. Corolla 33 years of 1968 to 2001, becomes the best-selling car to maintain domestic sales first place, we have continued to sell all over the world today.
At the time, it was also a time when Toyota Corolla vs Nissan Sunny, such as Toyota Corona vs Nissan Bluebird, sales competition with Toyota and Nissan have been intensifying.

The breath of sports car in Japan

In 1963, the first Annual Meeting of the Japanese Grand Prix was held, to stage the Japan Grand Prix, it came to high performance is compete. Skyline create a myth, confrontation of the Toyota Sports 800 and Honda S600 has attracted attention.

In the late 1960s, the finest cars Toyota 2000GT, Japan's first rotary engine car Mazda Cosmo Sport, Nissan is currently also taken over model Fairlady Z, it was born also a full-fledged domestic sports car like.

November 10, 2015

We greet the golden age of the automobile industry in the United States

n the United States that the mainland does not become a battlefield, after the war, automobile sales are expanding rapidly, American cars greet the golden age.

The automaker, which has been mushrooming by the time also, General Motors (GM), converge to Ford Motor, Chrysler's Big 3.

Entering the 1950s, large passenger cars were equipped with a large exhaust amount of the engine to reflect the rise of consumer society is popular, flashy models such as compete for huge tail fin was one after another.

November 9, 2015

Small cars are popular in Europe, produced a posterity to remain great car

Europe also had been devastated by war in the same way as Japan, gradually automobile industry revived.
Small popular car Volkswagen Beetle in Germany West German national, which is separated into east and west along with the production is started became worldwide popular cars as well.
In France, Renault, Citroen compact car was released, began to spread widely accepted by the masses.

In addition, future generations to remain great car also has produced at this time.
Citroen DS which debuted in 1955 in the Paris salon, as at the time, is an avant-garde in every sense, technically was followed by at least more than 20 years. Like aerodynamic body style, which is described as as has been flying from another planet, using the "gas and liquid" instead of metal spring ride by "hydro-pneumatic" suspension and comfortable than any large luxury car evaluation It has been.

In 1959, the first model of the popular MINI (mini) in the world will be announced from Austin also current. This mini is, by the front-wheel drive by the transverse engine, in a clever layout, it succeeded in obtaining a large indoor space that it can not be imagined from a small outer dimensions, was said to revolution of small cars.

November 6, 2015

Automotive industry after the Second World War (1945-1960 years)

In Japan, after the war, it became a start from the negative rather than zero. Production facilities hit hard, it had initially been banned the production of passenger cars from GHQ (Allied General Headquarters). The run the Burns only US military jeep and a large American cars, in Japan the factory could do was at making the scooter in what someone has at home.

In 1949, by which reduced the money supply as inflation control measures of the government, the industry there were numerous unemployment and bankruptcies and fallen into lack serious funds.
Meanwhile, Toyota also fall into a financial crisis, accepted the restructuring plan of the bank-led, so that to achieve a playback by independent separation of the sales department.

Automobile production limit of GHQ is released in 1949, a full-fledged automobile production of post-war Japan, began in the form of knock-down production of overseas vehicle.
Hino Motors Renault (France), Isuzu Motors Hillman (United Kingdom), Nissan partnered with Austin (United Kingdom), I went to learn the techniques of the latest automobile production in Europe.

Among Toyota takes its own route in the advances the development to stick to purely domestic passenger car, to announce the Toyopet Crown (primary crown) in 1955. Finally a pure domestic passenger car was born, the difference between the US and Europe is, was still greater.

November 5, 2015

World War II and the car (1938-1945)

During the war footing, as popular up policy for the masses Adolf Hitler in Germany, proposed a "national car initiative", as national car of Germany in 1938, Volkswagen Beetle is born. The car was developed by the founder Ferdinand Porsche of the hands of the Porsche company.

Since the Second World War has been the war in 1939, national car concept in mass production just before derailed, Kubelwagen of military vehicles were produced instead.

When the Volkswagen Beetle after the war the mass production is started, over a long period and are sold all over the world, to achieve a total 20 million or more units of production volume, not only a national car of Germany, and worldwide popular car became.
Dictator, although it is notorious Hitler as war criminals, this national car concept and the autobahn of construction, has been evaluated as his achievements.

On the other hand, the United States Army that focuses on activities of Kubelwagen at the time of the invasion of Poland in Germany developed a small four-wheel-drive Jeep (Jeep) in 1941, was put into combat. Also Jeep 600,000 as a military vehicle of Allied production, it went scattered to the battlefield around the world.
Also, after the war, it is knocked down production in the world, a huge number of dispatched at type jeep is born.

This in wartime regime, production of vehicles for military takes precedence over the world, development of passenger cars was a state of stop.

November 4, 2015

Bud of the car in Japan (1898-1945)

In Japan, for the first time in 1898, automobile (Panhard-Ruvu~asoru) is brought from abroad.
Then, even in Japan, attempt of automobile manufacturing went begun. Yama-wa in 1904 (1901) had been engaged in the electric plant in Okayama Torao is, I was allowed to complete the mountain feather steam car that is the No. 1 domestic cars. Although this car was built for the purpose of use as vans vehicles (bus), continue to suffer from the trouble that solid tire is removed from the rim, it remains to be left in the warehouse, it finished without realization plan of vans car It was.

1907, with net Japan's first gasoline-powered vehicles, also for the first time put into practical use gasoline cars in domestic was born. Prince Arisugawa Takehito Highness, which was said to "car of Miya sama" is, of Automobile Chamber of Commerce established the Yoshida Shintaro and mechanical engineers who carry out the import and repair of motor vehicles and requested to Uchiyama Komano assistant, of about 10 units Gasoline car was made.
At the time of the people, this car was called "No. Takuri" from the fact that running Gatakuri, Gatakuri.

Then, Taisho era from the late Meiji period, but domestic production of motor vehicles have been tried many, Japan industrial technology at that time, because it was still immature, domestic production was not successful.
Among such attempts, it had had a considerable impact on the establishment of the automobile industry of the later was KaiSusumu-sha and white poplar company.

In 1911 it founded KaiSusumu-sha automobile factory, and have completed the first issue "Dutt" of passenger cars in 1914 after three years (1914) year.

Japan's first full-scale automobile production is the first white poplar's No. Otomo is, it started production in 1925, 230 units were produced.

However, the difference between the US and Europe of technology was something that still hard to fill. GM and Ford knock down production in the country and start the (exporting major parts manufacturing countries, be produced locally), the market becomes oligopolistic state, KaiSusumu-sha, it would be disbanded in white poplar, Inc. both.

Enters the 1930s (Showa), it was established to become "Datsun Shokai" and Nissan's predecessor in 1932, is the predecessor of the Toyota Motor Corporation in the next 1933 "Toyota Industries Corporation Works founded automobile part "is, the current Nissan Motor, Toyota Motor born.

KaiSusumu-sha is around Tour of, is taken over by the Datsun Chamber of Commerce, on the other hand, a key member of the white poplar, Inc. has joined the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works automobile part.

After that, there were attempts of ambitious domestic passenger car production, such as Toyoda AA type or Datsun 14 type, pre-war Japanese cars track was the center. Toward the Second World War, when the wartime regime advances, the production of the track for the military is started, the development of passenger cars was to be forced to abort.

November 3, 2015

Mass production of motor vehicles, to spread (1900 ~)

Early 900's, it was still mainstream steam car. Meanwhile, France is De Dion Bouton, selling 1,500 units of gasoline vehicles over the next year in April from January 1900. It was a world leader in production and sales of gasoline vehicles, it was France.

Shortly thereafter, the United States is as shown an overwhelming presence in the automotive industry. It is a car, which started as a hobby of the aristocracy in Europe, but widely popular in the United States with a vast land area to determine the movement means to replace the horse-drawn carriage. Appeared in the 1901 Oldsmobile Curved Dash, the 425 units in the same year, 2500 is manufactured in the following year, became America's first mass-produced car.

Symbol of automobile popularization is an Ford Model T that appeared in 1908. Irish immigrants established II of Ford Motor American Henry Ford in 1903, is a car that "to create a car for the masses" and aspired to be, has bee developed.
With a simple structure, easy this car operation, 10,000 units were produced in the first year. 1913 the first-ever of the conveyor line is completed in the year, 1000 cars and would be produced in a day. until 1927 the production has been completed, the total production volume reached 15,007,033 units.

Which may be helped the popularization of automobiles. It is the first time adopted a self-starter invention in 1912 Cadillac. Now, but take a quick engine if even press the engine start button, the old days is not such must be turned in with all his strength a heavy crank handle, engine start-up has been difficult in women and the elderly. Sometimes men would reverse rotation even handle operates, which fractures and the arm in the original, it is about there are cases where it would die.

Along with the popularization of the automobile progresses, various luxury car also appeared. 1906, Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost in the UK is equipped with a six-cylinder engine of 50 horsepower, has established a worldwide reputation in the quietness and smoothness. In addition to Europe of Bugatti and Hispano-Suiza is also very expensive luxury car appeared, such as the American Cadillac and Duesenberg, nobility and millionaire is I got to compete.

In addition, longing for speed, went led the car to race. The 1906 1st ACF Grand Prix was held in France. Faster is better of steam car at this time, this year, the challenge was Stanley steamer to speed record has issued a 205.4km / h just. The gasoline car is more than a wall of 200km / h, it's three years later.
The world's first permanent circuit in the United Kingdom in 1907, Brooklands is completed. By competing in the race, the car will be to go to enhance the dramatic performance.
In the United States, Indianapolis 500 mile race was first held in 1911.
Begins Le Mans 24-hour race in France in 1923, there was the first Annual Meeting of the Monaco Grand Prix in 1929. Race becomes a place where automakers are engaged in competition over the honor of the nation, Bentley, Alfa Romeo, such as Mercedes-Benz has been waging a name game. Isotta-Furasukini, Thomas Flyer, also sports car such as the Stutz-Bearcat appeared.

November 2, 2015

Gasoline automobile birth (1886-1900)

Currently, gasoline automobile has become a mainstream is born, the 1885-1886 years. Japan has become in the Meiji era.
Steam car, the time the electric car had been mixed, Gottlieb Daimler of Germans developed a four-stroke engine, successful test run put the engine to the wooden two-wheeled vehicle in 1885, a four-wheeled vehicle in the next 1886 have developed. The same in 1886, was actually sold same Karl Benz of Germans completed the tricycle of gasoline engine.

Then, the French Panhard et Ruvu~asoru company had a manufacturing license of Daimler gasoline engine, the first time in the world, to the rear of the engine that was placed in the so-called cutting-edge, clutch, transmission arranged in tandem, def and devised the FR method for driving the rear wheel through a mechanism, a vehicle employing this method in 1891, was marketed a propanal-Ruvu~asoru. Mechanism of this car is called the "System Panhard", it laid the foundation of the current automotive technology.

Also, this time, or "tire of pneumatic" is invention (previously was a solid tire), handle those are "circular" currently used (previously had only intended to take the helm of the rod-shaped) There is invented, ride comfort and operability is improved.
In 1890 the early Panhard-Ruvu~asoru, still it is not mounted, the ones of 1900, a pneumatic tire, the steering of the circular is mounted.

First of auto racing world is open to around this time, in 1895, France, 22 cars in the course of back and forth between Paris and Bordeaux competed speed. 15 units of the participating cars in gasoline vehicles, six steam automobile, electric car was one. Eight out of the car nine who finish is a gasoline-powered car, the superiority of gasoline vehicles was also the race was shown. One outfit was a Panhard-Ruvu~asoru of gasoline vehicles.